Evaluation of Some Thyriod Hormones in Diabetics Attending Abia State University Teaching Hospital

Ahiara C.O.1, Onyeakolam I.F.², Nwosu D.C.1, Nwanjo H.U.1, Chima C.O.1, Anyanwu G.O.1,

Nwokorie E. A.², Emengaha F. C.1, Onu I. O.1 and *Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu3

‘Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

²Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rhema University, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda.

*Corresponding author: Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu. Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda,

ORCID: 0000-0002-4538-0161


The evaluation triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin, c-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor- α in diabetic patients attending Abia State Teaching Hospital Aba, was carried out. Venous blood samples were collected from 150 participants who gave consent. This comprises 100 diabetic patients as test and 50 healthy subjects as control. The serum Triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin was determined using Fincare™ quantitative assay method. Data from this study were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). Result shows that thyroxine (8.97±1.28µg/dl), thyrotropin(2.08±0.85µiu/ml) respectively) (p<0.05 in each case). The serum triiodothyronine (0.89±0.38ng/ml), was lower in diabetic patients, compared with control (1.04±0.33ng/l) (p<0.05). From the findings, management of conditions related to cardiovascular disease, atherosclerotic disease, anemia and stress in diabetics may benefit patients if thyroid hormones are included as part of their routine laboratory investigations.

Keywords: thyroid hormones, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerotic disease


Diabetes mellitus (DM), is a group of metabolic disorders in which there is high blood sugar level over a prolonged period and it is commonly referred to as diabetes [1-10]. Frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger are symptoms of high blood sugar [11]. Many complications are resulted as a cause of untreated diabetes [12]. Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death are as a result of acute complications. However, cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes are included as long-term complication [13-20]. There is evidence

that each of these dyslipidemia features is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes [20-27]. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between LDL size or density and coronary artery disease (CAD). Moreover, recent reports have indicated that LDL particle concentrations, and specifically levels of small dense LDL, are predictive of coronary events and that this is independent of other coronary disease risk factors [20-27].


In this present work, the serum T4, TSH, CRP, IL-6 and TNFα levels were higher in studied population compared with controls. There was significant progressive increase in T3 according to age groups. The statistically significant higher level of T4 (Table 1), could be due to the fact that during hyperthyroidism, the half-life of insulin is reduced most likely secondary to an increased rate of degradation and an enhanced release of biologically inactive insulin precursors. In untreated Graves’ disease, increased pro-insulin levels in response to a meal were observed in a study by Beck et al [23]. In addition, untreated hyperthyroidism was associated with a reduced C-peptide to pro-insulin ratio suggesting an underlying defect in pro-insulin processing. Another mechanism explaining the relationship between hyperthyroidism and hyperglycemia is the increase in glucose gut absorption mediated by the excess thyroid hormones. Endogenous production of glucose is also enhanced in hyperthyroidism via several mechanisms. Thyroid hormones produce an increase in the hepatocyte plasma membrane concentrations of GLUT2 which is the main glucose transporter in the liver, and consequently, the increased levels of GLUT-2 contribute to the increased hepatic glucose output and abnormal glucose metabolism. Additionally, increased lipolysis is observed in hyperthyroidism resulting in an increase in free fatty acid (FFA) that stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. The increased release of free fatty acid could partially be explained by an enhanced catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis induced by the excess thyroid hormones. Moreover, the nonoxidative glucose disposal in hyperthyroidism is enhanced resulting in an overproduction of lactate that enters the Cori cycle and promotes further hepatic gluconeogenesis. The increase in growth hormone, glucagon and catecholamine levels associated with hyperthyroidism further contributes to the impaired glucose tolerance.


From the study since thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone were higher in studied population and are associated with risk factors as coronary artery disease, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerotic diseases,  atherothrombotic  complications  and deficiency of vitamin k, care has to be taken in managing the disease. Furthermore, individuals are advised to go for regular laboratory investigation to ascertain their health conditions.


  1. Janez, A., Guja, C and Mitrakou, A (2020) . Insulin Therapy in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:   a   NarrativeAttending Diabetic Clinic in Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Zanzibar. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 33(29B), 67-78.Review.Diabetes Therapy ;11:387-409.
  1. Obeagu, I., & Obeagu, G. U. (2023). Type 1 diabetes mellitus: Roles of neutrophils in the pathogenesis. Medicine, 102(50), e36245.
  2. Obeagu, E. I., & Obeagu, G. U. (2018). Utilization of Antioxidants in the management of diabetes mellitus patients. J Diabetes Clin Prac, 1(102),
  3. Obeagu, I., Okoroiwu, I. L., & Obeagu, G.(2016). Some haematological variables in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients in Imo state Nigeria. Int. J. Curr. Res. Chem. Pharm. Sci, 3(4), 110-7.
  4. Ugwu, P. C., Alum, E. U., Okon, M. B.,Aja, P. M., Obeagu, E. I., & Onyeneke, E. C. (2023). Ethanol root extract and fractions of Sphenocentrum jollyanum abrogate hyperglycaemia and low body weight in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. RPS Pharmacy and Pharmacology Reports, 2(2), rqad010.
  1. Ifediora, C., Obeagu, E. I., Akahara, I. C., & Eguzouwa, U. P. (2016). Prevalence of urinary tract infection in diabetic patients attending Umuahia health care facilities. J Bio Innov, 5(1), 68-82.
  2. Nwakuilite, , Nwanjo, H. U., Nwosu, D. C., & Obeagu, E. I. (2020). Evaluation of some trace elements in streptozocin induced diabetic rats treated with Moringa oleifera leaf powder. WJPMR, 6(12), 15-18.
  3. Anyiam, A. F., Obeagu, E. I., Obi, E., Omosigho, P. O., Irondi, E. A., Arinze- Anyiam, C., & Asiyah, M. K. (2022). ABO blood groups and gestational diabetes among pregnant women attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, 5(2), 113- 121.
  4. Okafor, J., Yusuf, S. A., Mahmoud, S. A.,Salum, S. S., Vargas, S. C., Mathew, A. E., … & Abdulrahman, W. S. (2021). Effect of Gender and Risk Factors in Complications of Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus among Patients
  1. Nwakulite, , Obeagu, E. I., Nwanjo, H. U., Nwosu, D. C., Nnatuanya, I. N., Vincent, C.N., … & Amadi, N. M. (2021). Studies on Pancreatic Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats Treated with Moringa oleifera Leaf. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 33(28A), 78-86.
  2. Desai, S and Deshmukh, A(2020). Mapping of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Current Diabetes Review;16:438-41.
  3. Cieluch, A., Uruska, A and Zozulinska- Ziolkiewicz, D(2020). Can We Prevent Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus? Pathophysiology and Treatment Options. International Journal of molecular Science ;21:2852.
  4. Galano, S., Yusuf, S. A., Ogbonnia, S. O., Ogundahunsi, O. A., Obeagu, E. I., Chukwuani, U., … & Obianagha, N. F. (2021). Effect of Extracts of Kigelia Africana Fruit and Sorghum Bicolor Stalk on the Biochemical Parameters of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 33(25B), 86-97.
  5. Kama, C., Obeagu, E. I., Alo, M. N., Ochei,C., Ezugwu, U. M., Odo, M., … & Amaeze,A. (2020). Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection among Diabetic Patients in Abakaliki Metropolis. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(28), 117-121.
  6. Obeagu, E. I., Obeagu, G. U., & Egba, S. I. (2023). Coexisting Conditions: Addressing Diabetes in Sickle Cell Anemia Care. J. Curr. Res. Med. Sci, 9(11), 23-28.
  7. Nwakulite, A., Obeagu, E. I., Eze, R., Vincent, C. N., Chukwurah, E. F., Okafor,J., … & Ifionu, B. I. (2021). Evaluation of Catalase and Manganese in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 40-45.
  8. Okoroiwu, L., Obeagu, E. I., San Miguel,G., Bote, S. A., & Obeagu, G. U. (2023).Characterisation of HLA-DR antigen in patients type 1 diabetes mellitus in patient attending a tertairy hospital in Enugu, south-east     Nigeria.  ACADEMIC JOURNAL.
  1. Ezema, O., Omeh, N. Y., Egbachukwu, S.,Agbo, E. C., Ikeyi, A. P., & Obeagu, E. I. (2023). Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on Age and Gender in Umuahia. Asian Journal of Dental and Health Sciences, 3(2), 32-36.
  1. Ezugwu, M., Onyenekwe, C. C., Ukibe, N. R., Ahaneku, J. E., & Obeagu, E. I. (2021). Plasma Level of Macromolecules and Mathematical Calculation of Potential Energy in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals at NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 33(47B), 242-248.
  2. Ripsin, M., Kang, H and Urban, R.J (2013). Management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (PDF). American Family Physician. 79 (1): 29–36.
  3. Trinder, P(1969).Enzymatic Colorimetric determination of triglyceride by GOP- PAP
  4. Eva Engvall and Perlmann Peter(1971).The enzyme-LinkedImmunosorbent assay(ELISA).
  5. Beck, T., Epstein, N., Brown, G. and Steer, R (2011). Impaired insulin-induced site- specific phosphorylation of TBCI domain family, member 4(TBCID4) in   skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes patients is restored by endurance exercise training.
  1. Aja, M., Igwenyi, I. O., Okechukwu, P. U., Orji, O. U., & Alum, E. U. (2015). Evaluation of anti-diabetic effect and liver function indices of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera and Cajanus cajan leaves in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Global Veterinaria, 14(3), 439-447.
  2. Ugwu O.P.C. and Amasiorah, V. I. (2020). The In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of the Crude Ethanol Root Extract and Fractions of Sphenocentrum jollyanum on Oxidative Stress Indices in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic albino rats. IDOSR Journal Of Biology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, 5(1), 26-35.
  3. Enechi, O. C., Oluka, I. H., Ugwu, O. P., & Omeh, Y. S. (2013). Effect of ethanol leaf extract of Alstonia boonei on the lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(3), 782-795.
  4. Ude C.M. and T.J. Iornenge M.C. Udeh Sylvester, F.C. Nwodo, O.E. Yakubu, E.J. Parker, S. Egba, E. Anaduaka, V.S. Tatah,O.P. Ugwu, E.M. Ale (2022). Effects of Methanol Extract of Gongronema latifolium Leaves on Glycaemic Responses to Carbohydrate Diets in Streptozotocin- induced Diabetic Rats. Journal of Biological Sciences,22.70-79.   
    CITE AS: Ahiara C.O., Onyeakolam I.F., Nwosu D.C., Nwanjo H.U., Chima C.O., Anyanwu G.O., Nwokorie A., Emengaha F. C., Onu I. O. and Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu (2024). Evaluation of Some Thyriod Hormones in Diabetics Attending Abia State University Teaching Hospital. IDOSR JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCES 9(1) 8-14.
                                                                  DOWNLOAD PDF