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Assessment of haematological parameter and Liver enzyme among Hepatitis B Infected Blood Donors

Oke Olusegun Taiwo1, Oduntan Sekinat Oluremi1, Olasimbo Godswill Ikuejamoye1, Abdulrahman Abdulbasit Opeyemi1, Olamijuwon Priscilla Busola1, Ayara Peter Ayowole1 and *Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu2

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Basic Health Sciences, Achievers University Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda.

*Corresponding author: Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda,, 0000-0002-4538-0161


Viral hepatitis poses a substantial global health burden. The most often seen abnormalities after the diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) generally encompass haematological abnormalities and changes in liver parameters. The aim of this study is to evaluate the haematological variables and liver enzymes, specifically aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), among blood donors who have contracted the hepatitis B virus (HBV) at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) in Owo. The study encompassed a cohort of 70 individuals, with the experimental group comprising 50 individuals who exhibited positive results for the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The control group consisted of a sample of twenty (20) apparently healthy adults. The mean levels of red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), haemoglobin (HGB), and platelets (PLT) demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in persons relative to the control group, as evidenced by the p-values of 0.002, 0.001, 0.035, and 0.002, respectively. No statistically significant decrease in the average concentration of white blood cells (WBC) was reported among the participants in comparison to the control group (p=0.236). The study revealed a significantly increased mean concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the participants as compared to the control group (p=0.016). The study findings revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of AST observed between the participants and the control group (p = 0.285). The present study has provided evidence to support the use of haematological parameters and liver enzymes as a reliable and accurate approach for assessing the severity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Therefore, it is crucial to incorporate the surveillance of patients even after their recovery from hepatitis B virus infection as an essential element of their healthcare.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, Liver, Haematological Parameter, Liver Enzyme


The prevalence of Hepatitis B (HB) infection is a matter of great concern on a global scale, as it has the potential to greatly impact public health [1-4]. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has exhibited a substantial global prevalence, impacting a population over two billion individuals [5-8]. Moreover, a significant proportion of this affected population, estimated to be between 360 and 400 million individuals, is known to suffer from chronic HBV infection [10-16].  However, it has been determined that the anticipated annual mortality attributable to HB infection spans a range of 0.61 million to one million [17-20]. Furthermore, the annual global incidence of HB infection amounts to around 4.5 million new cases. Notably high prevalence of HBV infection in the Western Pacific and African Region. Specifically, the infection rates among the adult population in both regions were found to be 6.2% and 6.1% respectively [21-25]. Numerous studies have reported the prevalence rates in sub-Saharan Africa, revealing a considerable variation ranging from 3% to 50%. It is worth noting that Nigeria has documented a prevalence rate of 9.5% for hepatitis B infection [26-30].

The liver is accountable for the synthesis of approximately 90% of all proteins, encompassing the entirety of albumin [31-38]. As a result, a notable decrease in blood protein concentrations is found in cases of extensive liver tissue destruction. Liver function tests are diagnostic procedures used to identify, diagnose, and evaluate hepatic diseases. The enzymes aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are intracellular enzymes that are released into the circulation as a result of liver cell membrane disruption, causing the cytoplasmic contents of the cell to be expelled [39-43]. The enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) are predominantly localised on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. In the event of cholestasis, these enzymes are released into the plasma. The correlation between an elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level and the existence of a cholestatic disease can be verified through an augmentation in gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels [43-47]. The usage of haematological parameters is a widely employed method for evaluating the overall health status of individuals, since each component plays a vital role in diagnosing particular illnesses such as hypertension and hemostatic disorders [30-40]. The aforementioned criteria are acknowledged to demonstrate variety with respect to aspects such as age, gender, race, geographic location, as well as special circumstances such as pregnancy and certain medical disorders. The measurements listed above demonstrate intra-individual variability, as observed by [9]. Therefore, the main aim of this research is to evaluate the haematological parameters and liver enzymes, specifically aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), in individuals who have contracted the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and have made blood donations at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) in Owo.


The association between HBV, haematological alterations, and liver function disruption is established in this study. The concentration of haematological parameters in HBV-infected individuals differs from that of healthy individuals, with a significant difference in the levels of HCT, HGB, RBC, and PLT, as well as liver parameters such as ALT and AST. The present study has established that assessment of haematological parameters and liver enzymes is an effective, reliable, and competent way of diagnosing the severity of HBV infection.


In the present study, variation in the haematological parameters has been observed in patients with the seropositive Hepatitis B virus. This determines the need for routine haematological investigations in acute viral hepatitis patients. The follow-up of patients even after recovery from hepatitis B virus infection should be an essential part of these patients’ management.


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CITE AS: Oke Olusegun Taiwo, Oduntan Sekinat Oluremi, Olasimbo Godswill Ikuejamoye, Abdulrahman Abdulbasit Opeyemi, Olamijuwon Priscilla Busola, Ayara Peter Ayowole and Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu (2024). Assessment of haematological parameter and Liver enzyme among Hepatitis B Infected Blood Donors. IDOSR JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCES 9(1) 15-23.