Prevalence and Factors Associated with Modern Contraceptive Uptake among Women of Reproductive Age (15-49) Attending the Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in the Jinja District
Modern contraception, a pillar of safe motherhood is known for its benefits including limiting unwanted pregnancies and reducing infant and maternal mortality and morbidity. Modern contraception significantly reduces up to 35% of maternal deaths, 13% of child mortalities and up to 25% of under-five mortalities. This research aimed to explore factors associated with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods among women of reproductive age (15-49) attending the Jinja regional referral hospital in the Jinja district. The study involved the use of a descriptive cross-sectional study design and a total of 365 randomly selected women of reproductive age (15-49) at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital were enrolled into the study. Data on the current use of modern contraceptives and related factors were collected using a researcher-administered questionnaire after which the data was checked for completeness and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 25. Factors associated with modern contraceptive utilization were determined using logistic regression analysis and Chi2 square test while statistical significance was determined at p-value≤0.05 and 95% confidence interval. We enrolled a total of 365 study participants. The prevalence of modern contraceptive uptake was found to be 30.14%. Factors associated with modern contraception uptake included age, marital status, parity, number of living children, age of the youngest child, caesarean delivery, and discussion of modern contraceptive use with partner. After adjusting for possible confounders, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only the age of the youngest child and the expected time to have another child significantly influenced modern contraceptive use. Modern contraceptive use in this study was low and independently associated with the age of the youngest child and the expected time to have another child. More efforts need to increase modern contraceptive uptake.
Keywords: Modern contraception, Safe motherhood, Unwanted pregnancies, women of reproductive age, maternal deaths.
Modern contraception is a family planning method that assists individuals in their decisions regarding the number of children to have and when to have them . According to the world health organization (WHO) fact sheet, modern contraception has major benefits which include but not limited to reducing the rate of unwanted pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, reduced risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, and checking on population growth . Evidence exists that if couples can space their pregnancies by at least two years apart through the use of modern contraceptives, up to 35% of maternal deaths and up to 13% of child mortalities could be averted , whilst 25% of under-five mortalities could be averted if birth intervals were at least three years . Globally, in 2015, modern contraceptive utilization was 57.4% . However, the estimates in Africa have stagnated between 2008 and 2015 at 23.6% and 28.5% respectively . In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Uptake of modern contraceptive methods remains low. Studies have attributed this low uptake of modern contraceptives to both social demographic and cultural factors . It is estimated that, 214 million women or reproductive age in SSA have unmet need for modern contraceptives . Uganda has made a great progress in increasing uptake of contraceptive use over the years. As per the latest Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS) , use of modern methods in Uganda has increased from 8% in 1995 to 35.8% in 2016 among married women aged 15–49 years while the rate for all sexually active women is currently 29.2% . However, this figure is still low and the unmet need for family planning is still high at 32.5% . Furthermore, 44 % of pregnancies are unplanned , and spacing between pregnancies is poor, which is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality, childhood malnutrition, and complications during pregnancy . Moreover, Uganda’s contraceptive prevalence rate is lower than figures among neighboring countries namely Kenya (46%) , (52%) . One important step in addressing the unmet need for modern contraceptive uptake in Uganda is to explore factors that influence women’s contraceptives use. Several studies have been conducted to determine factors which influence modern contraceptive use. Factors such as; maternal age group , maternal education level , maternal parity , household income , employment status , and religion , were identified among others. While the above sizable body of research exists on factors influencing use of modern contraception among women of child bearing age, there is paucity of data on factors influencing women’s use of contraceptives in Eastern Uganda and Jinja regional referral hospital (JRRH) in particular. Thus, this study sought to explore such factors that are associated with modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age within the local context.
Modern contraceptive use in this study was generally low far way below the national family planning strategy target, the contraceptive prevalence rate for both developing countries and worldwide. For the case of the socio-demographic factors, age of the youngest child and the expected time to have another child independently influenced modern contraceptive use in multivariate logistic regression analysis.
More efforts are needed to improve modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age if the national modern contraceptive target is to be achieved. Further studies involving the community should be conducted for generalizability of the study.
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CITE AS: Nakirya Sheilla (2023). Prevalence and Factors Associated with Modern Contraceptive Uptake among Women of Reproductive Age (15-49) Attending the Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in the Jinja District. IDOSR JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 8(3) 69-83, 2023.https://doi.org/10.59298/IDOSR JSR /2023/00.6.6000