Evaluation of Some Hematological Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Attending Abia State University Teaching Hospital Aba Based on Socio-Demographic Characteristics

Ahiara C. O.1, Onyeakolam I. F.², Nwosu D. C.1, Nwanjo H. U.1, Chima C. O.1, Anyanwu G.O. 1, Nwokorie E. A.², Emengaha F.C.1, Onu I.O.1 and *Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu3

‘Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

²Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rhema University, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. 

3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda.  

*Corresponding author: Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu,

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda,, ORCID: 0000-0002-4538-0161


The evaluation of lipid profile and some hematological parameters in diabetic patients attending Abia State Teaching Hospital Aba, was carried out. Venous blood samples were collected from 150 participants who gave consent. This comprises 100 diabetic patients as test and 50 healthy subjects as control. The plasma glucose and hemoglobin levels were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Data from this study were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). Result shows that, platelet (395.44±72.11×109/l), prothrombin time (13.63±0.95secs) levels were higher in study population compared with control (176.18±25.26×109/l, 11.85±0.63secs, respectively) (p<0.05 in each case). The hemoglobin (124.83±15.01g/l) was lower in diabetic patients compared with control (131.66±10.45g/l) (p<0.05). From the findings, management of conditions related to cardiovascular disease, artherosclerotic disease, anemia and stress in diabetics may benefit patients if some hematological parameters are included as part of their routine laboratory investigations.

Keywords: hematological parameters, coagulation, platelets, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus


Diabetes mellitus (DM), is a group of metabolic disorders in which there is high blood sugar level over a prolonged period and it is commonly referred to as diabetes [1-10]. Frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger are symptoms of high blood sugar [11-16]. Many complications are resulted as a cause of untreated diabetes [17-24]. Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death are as a result of acute complications. However, cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes are included as long-term complication [25-30]. There is evidence that each of these dyslipidemia features is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes [31-35]. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between LDL size or density and coronary artery disease (CAD). Moreover, recent reports have indicated that LDL particle concentrations, and specifically levels of small dense LDL, are predictive of coronary events and that this is independent of other coronary disease risk factors [30-35].


The significantly lower levels of hemoglobin in studied population compared with the control (Table 1), may be due to a decreased amount of hemoglobin molecules, as in anemia, or by decreased ability of each molecule to bind oxygen at the same partial pressure of oxygen. Furthermore, this could be as a result of diabetic neuropathy, increase levels of adrenal glycation end products (AGEs), chronic inflammatory activity, erythropoietin hypo-responsiveness effects of oxidative stress and anti-diabetic medication as well as poor diet. To a small extent, hemoglobin A, slowly combines with glucose at the terminal valine (an alpha aminoacid) of each β chain [22]. The resulting molecule is often referred to as HbA1c, a glycosylated hemoglobin. The binding of glucose to amino acids in the hemoglobin takes place spontaneously (without the help of an enzyme) in many proteins, and is not known to serve a useful purpose. However, as the concentration of glucose in the blood increases, the percentage of Hb A that turns into Hb A1c increases. In diabetics whose glucose usually runs high, the percent Hb A1c also runs high [23].


Also, hemoglobin was lower in studied population, which are not to the advantage of the patients. Low hemoglobin has increase susceptibility of the kidney to nephropathy causing failure of the kidney to produce adequate erythropoietin responsible for production of erythrocytes. Therefore, in managing these conditions in addition to aneamia and chronic atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism, it will be of benefit to diabetic patients if lipid profile, platelet, hemoglobin and prothrombin time tests are included in laboratory investigation.


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CITE AS: Ahiara C. O., Onyeakolam I. F., Nwosu D. C., Nwanjo H. U., Chima C. O., Anyanwu G.O., Nwokorie E. A., Emengaha F.C., Onu I.O. and Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu (2024). Mellitus Attending Abia State University Teaching Hospital Aba Based on Socio-Demographic Characteristics. IDOSR JOURNAL OF APPLIED SCIENCES 9(1) 1-7.