An Assessment of the Effect of Motivation and Affirmative Action on Employee’s Performance in Gombe Local Government, Nigeria

Tom Mulegi, Usman Bappi and Bulus Jonah Saidu

1Department of Public Administration and Management, Kampala International University, Uganda.

2Department of Public Administration, Gombe State University, Nigeria.

3Department of Banking and Finance, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.; and


This study examined the effect of motivation and affirmative action on the performance of Gombe local government staff, where intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and affirmative action are used as the independent variables and performance as the dependent variable. Data was generated using primary source, where 330 staff responded through the use of questionnaire. Multiple regression was used for the analysis. The study found a significant effect of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and affirmative action on performance. Therefore the study recommended that Gombe local government should do more on intrinsic motivation as it is lagging behind in the area of vacation and job recognition of its workers and also improve the workers remuneration by adhering to the national minimum wage and overtime payment.

Keywords: Motivation, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, affirmative action, performance.


Motivation as a global managerial practice has over the time been used to improve performance of an employee in every organization, which is derived by the existence of sense of need for oneself and an individual impulse of desire channeled towards the goal of gaining satisfaction [1]. Motivation begins with the introduction of needs, because each employee has different needs and so the work motivation that employees is also different. The higher the motivation that an employee has will affect performance [2-4]. Motivation can also be viewed as a trigger for employees to be able to inject excellent performance without coercion, on the contrary, employees who are less motivated will to a large extent affect their performance even though they have good work potential [5-7]. Providing motivation through warding employee’s achievements, recognition of expertise and so on, will further improve employee performance and achieve company goals. According to [8], intrinsic motivation is moral incentives which include more firmness, recognition, and positive feedback that an employee provides to his manager, a higher position, and also more responsibility. Recognition is one of the main rewards that employees value greatly. Attention and evaluation can be a good incentive that encourages workers to continue to show better performance [9]. Extrinsic rewards  is a compensation for employees in the form of fringe benefits, payments and other tangible benefits that employees receive from an organization to achieve specific goals, or just because they are part of the organization [10-11].  Affirmative action is a short-term intercession of special consideration to remedy discrimination and ensure fair competition and equality during recruitment and in the workplace [12-13]. The survival of humankind is closely linked to the employment opportunities available in the public or private sectors. This may explain why internal labor law, through various bodies, provides employment equity to avoid discrimination at work and present equal employment opportunities for everyone [14].

Work motivation is in the blue print of many organizations, but is still rarely fully implemented as it should. An employee normally feels short chained where they completed their work well, and the form of rewards and wages given is still inadequate. To be able to improve employee performance, providing motivation and equal right and opportunity to employees is very necessary, where many organizations are taking it for granted. [12], asserted that employees who are always motivated will feel important and the results of their hard work are recognized by the company. Many studies were conducted on motivation and employees performance, but focused on variables like leadership motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, among others, where this research added affirmative action as one of the important aspect of employees motivation and performance.


Motivation and affirmative action in every work place is crucial for greater productivity through the performance of human resources. An intrinsic motivation which comes through the feeling of good working environment, recognition, and holidays among others is a factor that cannot be ignored by every organization.  On the other hand, good remuneration to a worker is also a very important strategy for triggering performance because an employee must be paid well for higher productivity on the job. Giving equal right and opportunity for every employee gives a sense of belonging to a worker, and makes him not to feel discriminated against in any form. Therefore, this research found a significant effect on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and affirmative action on the performance of Gombe local government staff.


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 Tom Mulegi, Usman Bappi and Bulus Jonah Saidu (2023). An Assessment of the Effect of Motivation and Affirmative Action on Employee’s Performance in Gombe Local Government, Nigeria. IDOSR JOURNAL OF BANKING, ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 8(1): 50-59.